What is AFAM?

A flexible toolkit for any target audience

In 2005, Belgian Red Cross-Flanders modernized First Aid courses according to the latest medical and scientific data using the evidence-based medicine practice. This resulted in the European First Aid Manual or EFAM. So far, more than 30 organizations base their First Aid courses on EFAM, thus harmonizing First Aid training throughout Europe.


Several African Red Cross National Societies expressed the need for first aid materials adapted to the African context. In addition the World Bank identified first aid training as a low-cost opportunity to decrease the burden of disease and injury in Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus we decided to use the EFAM-experience to develop first aid materials for the African context. And so AFAM, the African First Aid Materials, was born. In addition, AFAM is also complemented with prevention advice.

Evidence-based practice

AFAM was developed using evidence-based practice that take into account the latest available scientific evidence. Evidence-based practice also takes into account the experience of specialists and preferences of certain target groups and the means that are available to them. Read more about our methodology (pdf, 89kb).

Table of contents

  • Basic principles for management of an emergency
    • Dealing with an emergency
    • Stress in an emergency
    • Protecting form infection
    • Basic needs
  • Sudden illness:
    • Facial weakness, arm weakness and speech problems
    • Chest discomfort
    • Choking
    • Fainting or unconsciousness
    • No breathing
    • Fever
    • Fits
    • Diarrhoea
    • Rash
  • Injuries:
    • Severe bleeding
    • Wounds with bullets or objects in a cut
    • Snake, scorpion or spider bites or sting
    • Burns
    • Injury to head, neck, or back
    • Broken or dislocated limbs
    • Injury to muscles or joints
    • Eye injury
    • Bite wounds
    • Nose bleed
    • Cuts and grazes
    • Bee or wasp stings
  • Poisoning
  • Emergency childbirth

View the table of contents (pdf, 2mb)

AFAM has been developed with support from various partners



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